1. GYANARANJAN SAHOO - Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Angul, Odisha, India.
2. AFAQ MAJID WANI - Department of Forest Biology, Tree Improvement and Wildlife Sciences, College of Forestry, Sam Higgin bottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, India.
3. ASIM CHANDRA DASH - Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Chiplima, Sambalpur, Odisha, India.
4. SANDEEP ROUT - Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri University, Cuttack, Odisha, India.
5. BARSHA TRIPATHY - M.S.Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Gajapati, Odisha, India.
6. AJAY KUMAR PRUSTY - M.S.Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Gajapati, Odisha, India.
7. LIPSA DASH - M.S.Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Gajapati, Odisha, India.
For a wide variety of natural resources and ecological services necessary for their well-being, rural poor typically rely on diversity and are thus likely to be tormented by their deprivation. Conservationists, development practitioners and policy makers generally have different views about how and whether to link conservation of diversity with poverty reduction in this context. Rural inhabitants notably valued provisioning structural/ecosystem services like fuel, water, and crops, however ignoring the many important regulatory and supporting services. The flow of environmental services is not only vital for rural ecosystems and well-being of poor rural communities. Anthropogenic activities are mainly responsible for habitat fragmentation and destruction of bio-cultural resources and responsible for minimizing the delivery of ecosystem services. The intensification of agriculture in rural areas is one of significant causes for biodiversity losses besides many other human perturbations decreasing the both quantity and quality of ecosystem services. The ecosystem services, biodiversity and socio-economic development have linked in complex ways with several feed backs operating within and between systems. The growing demands by burgeoning population further deteriorating balance and links between the components. Therefore, the quantification of biodiversity and ecosystems are critical in rapidly changing rural ecosystems. The policy frame work for management of biological diversity and ecosystems services needs to revitalize aligned with goals and targets of SDG aimed at sustainable development of communities. The synergies and trade-offs needs to be carefully balanced for managing biodiversity and development and nexus in food-energy water related ecosystem services. The chapter reviews the nature based socio-ecologically engineered solutions for regenerating eroding diversity and bringing resilience in rural ecosystem services.
Biodiversity, Ecosystem services, Human activities, Rural Sustainable development.